Natural stone in the exterior cladding of buildings and structures
decorative qualities of natural stone, its ability to withstand long-term
negative effects of the environment put him out of competition compared with
other facing materials. Using stone materials for exterior cladding in
architectural history of our country can be seen in buildings of Moscow and St.
Petersburg, are the main centers of civil engineering in Russia.
Since the last quarter of the XVIII century
and before the beginning of the First World War the focus of consumer facing
stone was Petersburg. There used local platy limestone (Pudozhsky, Putilov,
Volkhov and Tosnensky) Revelsky marble, granite from the Finland coast and Lake
Ladoga, Estonian marbled limestone, colored German and Polish sandstones.
Granite and local limestone used for the construction and cladding caps and
stylobates large public buildings (the Academy of Fine Arts, the Academy of
Science, Engineering Castle, the Main Staff, the Admiralty, the Kazan Cathedral,
and so on. D.). Last quarter of the XVIII century it was initiated by the
enormous town-planning value of the work facing granite embankments of the Neva
and the walls of the fortress. At the same time the Marble Palace was built.
One of the most prominent stone buildings of St. Petersburg in the first half
of the XIX. - St. Isaac's Cathedral, where the lining of the stylobate and
facilities 116 columns in large numbers
was used polished granite. The walls of the cathedral dressed marble
Ruskealskogo field. Granite lined most of the bridges over the Neva River in
St. Petersburg. With the development of rail transport stone in the late XIX
and early XX century increased use of imported decorative stone. In the short
time (1896-1914) In St. Petersburg, built about 200 buildings where the facades
used natural stone and there have been continuous facade of five-seven-storey
buildings, mainly banks and public.
In Moscow before the end of the XIX century in
the construction of the Moscow region was used only local white limestone and
gray sandstones. Only with the development of railway transport stone in the
late XIX century, here were imported Finnish granite and sandstone Polish.
Since 1912 began to be used Shishimskogo marble deposits, which faced facade
Museum of Fine Arts named after AS Pushkin. Since the 30s of this century,
Moscow became the leading consumer facing stone.
these years, imported marble from the Urals and Georgian fields and granite of
Ukrainian field lined with numerous administrative, educational and residential
buildings, bridges and embankments of the Moskva river, subway stations and
other facilities. Laconic modern architectural forms, detailing restraint have
led to the fact that the main element of the lining of steel flat plate, the
mass production of which can be adjusted at high automated production lines,
allowing the wide use of decorative tiles made of natural stone in modern
stone plays an important role in the architectural composition of buildings.
Standardisation, unification, typing - the main directions of modern
architecture and construction practice, in some cases conflict with the desire
of architects to create a unique, memorable image of buildings. Facing natural
stone to a certain extent contribute to the individualization of the building
were constructed from standard elements, due to the uniqueness of colors and
textures of various types of stone from different fields.
of types of stone for cladding and decorative works, surface textures and sizes
facing products primarily determined by the composition of architectural
structures. Centuries of experience architects has revealed certain principles
of selection of rock and its treatment. These principles are derived from the
architectonic structure, the material conditions of work in the various
elements of buildings, structures and conditions of perception reasons of
selecting types of stone, the relevant architectonic structures, take into
account the possibility of artistic expression in the lining of the various
structural parts of the building. During Renaissance time, the most perfectly
developed methods of selecting the stone and its invoices in accordance with
the architectonic bearing wall. The wall was vertical divided on tiers. Facing
lower tier expressed greater loading of this part of the wall, so the lining of
the lower floors and caps used the strongest rocks - granite, diorite, gabbro,
labradorite, and so on. N., And gave them the invoice chipping, while the upper
floors stones less stable rocks - limestone, sandstone, dolomite, marble,
giving them a more delicate texture, or plastered.
Currently, the selection principle remains
the same breed stone wall when carrying and carried elements of buildings.
Plinths, columns and stylobates veneer stronger species than the walls. But
tectonics modern frame buildings, where curtain walls are similar burden in all
parts of plants, determines otherwise than in the Renaissance, the expression
of the work in its wall lining. The outer wall plane in modern buildings made
uniform regardless of whether the wall is hung on the frame or based on the
edge beam. Large undivided plane walls require a lot of homogeneous cladding
material. Therefore, at present in the construction of our preference for
relatively inexpensive types of stone: travertine, tuff, limestone, dolomite
and white marble. Application labradorite, gabbro, and other expensive and
durable species declined significantly compared with the construction in the
previous periods. In construction there are examples abroad facing facades of
large buildings completely with precious stones (building of the Ford
Foundation in New York City, the building of the Supreme Court, in Tokyo, and
color and texture of various types of stone influence the perception of
architectural structures. Buildings of the dark gabbro, granite, diorite and
other similar breeds look the most monumental, sometimes even gloomy and
inaccessible compared to structures of light limestone and travertine marble.
Bright polished marble, translucent at the corners and fine details, could
create the impression of lightness and airiness even, transparent structures,
walls on a sunny day literally dissolve against the sky. Fine combination of
rocks of different colors gives the building solemnity and elegance. This is a
combination of different colors of marble panels on the facade of Florence
Cathedral. Huge thanks to this building do not suppress their mass surrounding buildings.
They are quite commensurate with the scale of the city. Only in the inner
spaces of the buildings and the skyline of the city revealed its enormous size.
The rich range of colors creates the impression of facing medley. The division
in the form of individual panels, panels and tiers does not violate its unity.
In facing the Doge's Palace in Venice
combines pink and white marble, forming on a blank stone wall geometry pattern,
giving the architecture of the palace conviviality and ease. Selection of types
of stone and color combinations can carry some meaning in the composition. So,
a combination of light gray dolomite and black diabase, in the facing of the
facades of the Leningradskogo crematorium mourning emphasizes the purpose of
the structure. The facing of the Armenian brown-purple tuff of the Moscow
theater "Yerevan" and colored marble Uzbek shop
"Uzbekistan" in Donetsk indicates the desire to emphasize the
architecture of these buildings is a national trend. The use of natural stone color
allows you to create monochrome and polychrome architectural compositions. An
example is a polychrome composition ST. Mark's in Venice. It used a variety of
marble - white, black Egyptian, Verona red, gray Carrara, Spanish marble with
yellow and brownish spots on blue-gray background, Phrygian white marble with
purple and black veins; Istra yellowish limestone, red porphyry from Egypt,
dark green porphyry; red, black and gray granite, breccias, and etc. There are
about 50 varieties of stone from Egypt, Asia Minor, the islands of the Greek
archipelago, Greece, Rome, Sicily, Spain and North Africa in this building.
polychrome stone composition is much easier. Usually combinations include two
or three colors and no more: the building of the French Embassy in Moscow used:
red-orange tuff, white marble and black gabbro; in the embassy building in
Moscow, Poland - white marble and gray-green syenite; on the facades of
children's music school in Yerevan tuff used three colors.
In modern architecture often used monochrome
compositions, where large undivided walls veneer same plane on the color of the
stone. It requires a rigorous approach to the selection of tiles for uniformity
of color and tone. Wilderness areas enclosing walls, tiled stone different in
tone, overhanging tape glazing creates an unpleasant impression of masonry,
hanging in the air (chess club in Yerevan). The administrative building, built
by the project architect J. Pickard, the horizontal panel lined with colored
marble with a pronounced texture, revealing a stone rock in Madrid. Panels of
variegated marble tiles get pressure as a stone subconsciously always
associated with weight. For horizontal hinged panels more logical use of flat
vertical panels of tiles tone selection may be less severe, but even here the
uniformity of tone is preferred, since it emphasizes the solidity, massiveness
of the building (the station in Vladimir, Institute of the Far East in Moscow).
combinations of stone veneers can be used to contrast the opposition and
carried by the load-bearing elements of the building, when the last trim darker
stone, for example, exposed columns of the first floor or con solo made by
beams on which rest the overlying structure.
are purely decorative techniques and combinations of color stone facings. For
example, finishing large surfaces of external walls of the Museum of Art in
Cleveland United States is an alternation of narrow horizontal strips of light
and dark granite.
important role in the composition plays impressive stonework. It enriches the
plastic construction, causing light and shade, emphasizes the individual
elements of the composition. Selection of surface texture is determined by how
the element is treated stones - monolithic or dismembered. Invoices with a
smooth topography can create a monolithic undifferentiated plane. Rough-fluted invoice
always reveal the addition of the walls of the individual blocks. Architectural
interpretation of facing a rough texture gives the impression of massive
masonry, though constructive - it's just a waybill decorative layer. Using this
texture, some architects would like to protest against the excessive
utilitarianism preceding period architectural 60 get into another excess -
architecture get emphasize on expressive nature. Buildings get closed volumes
with small window openings, the surface of the walls - deliberately rough
treatment. That is the Supreme Court building in Tokyo - a dull, almost without
openings, lined with horizontal stripes of light granite with rough-crushed
texture. Medieval dungeon architecture resembles the city hall in Tokyo.
Volumes have its curved surface, a few windows in the form of narrow loopholes.
A three-storey stylobate buildings, lined with red granite rusticated tiles,
similar in size brick. The main entrance is designed as a high arch, a
staircase leading to the lobby, starts right from the entrance arch, exterior
doors and there are no people directly from the street enters the interior of
the grand lobby, which has a medieval architecture is characteristic room with
high arched windows stretching , the floor made of red granite, the walls are
made of polished black granite, aluminum ribs reinforce the impression of the
arch. The entrance to the basement garage is made in the form of an arch, only
to have a shallow form. The thickness of the stone walls of windows framing
emphasizes decision-loopholes and depth of the niche at the entrance, which has
a small sculpture. The architecture of the building is grim, closed, but a very
interesting interpretation of the stone building.
In modern Japanese architecture is also used
coarse texture of the wall, resulting in the lining of her ragged chunks of
stone, gravel and pebbles. Interesting for architects - historical-ethnographic museum in Takamattsu
(architect T. Yamamoto). This is a complex composition, which serve as the
basis for several deaf volume having the shape of a truncated pyramid. These
volumes, lined with ragged, rough stones of small size, combined with the lower
horizontal volume, made of concrete and glass. The whole composition is located
on the top of a small cliff, which overlooks the bay. Relief of the rocks left
almost untouched and organically merges with the buildings, retaining walls and
steps smashed into the rock. The picturesque composition seems to be an organic
element of the surrounding mountain landscape, rough-fluted stone texture of
architectural volumes makes them a natural extension of the natural landforms.
monolithic on architectural interpretation of the walls is used, as a rule, a
single invoice processing throughout the plane, the tectonics of the wall with
horizontal articulation of the plane determines the use of the lower parts of
its rougher texture to identify the load or, on the contrary, the most subtle
texture if the base is treated as a monolith the more that the fine texture
allows for more decorative features reveal stone - its color and texture, the
most accessible spectator in the lower parts of the building.
variety of textures of the material contributes to a different perception and
evaluation of the various parts of the building and the whole composition in
general. Thus, a rough rustication stone facing slabs of the lower floors of
the Renaissance Italian palazzo reinforces the impression of significance,
inaccessibility, the massiveness of the buildings.
of tiles influence on the composition. The thickness and jointing method are
selected in accordance with the invoice processing boards. For rough-fluted invoices
are selected and wider seams that often emphasize the special treatment of
contour plates. With mirror polished textures and seams are made minimal (up to
4 mm) to create the impression of solidity lined the walls. Plates from an
artificial marble having a pattern such as breccia, can be separated from each
other sufficiently large joints, which are filled with colored cement applied
under the basic tone of rock or stone with cement and rock dust.
more revealing seams in the lining of the building used a special treatment of
the mating faces of the stone. With careful fitting stone squares together to
process them frame. A thinner edging stone compared to the rough treatment of
the facial field stone allows you to clearly read the size of the squares. It
is also used rusticated treatment of joints, having a variety of
configurations: rectangular, round, prismatic, grooved, chamfered. Rust can be
performed at a sufficient thickness of the facing plates. Therefore rusticated
pair typically used for plates big-hilly or having the texture of rock, but can
be used for other invoices, except for polished, mirror-polished and for which
it is not typical. Rustic surface creates a sense of a massive wall. Various
configurations and create a certain depth Rust plastic surface, enhance the
game of light and shade.
Using the methods of jointing, the
combination of various sizes and textures of tiles and the method of their
clutches, architects can achieve varying degrees of intensity of the feeling of
the material, to give the building or facility, on the contrary, massive and
example, emphasis on vertical joints and flowers lining the pavilion at VDNH in
Moscow gave a slender diminutive structure. Vertical joints visually
facilitated massive, lined with stone elements included in the composition of
buildings pension "Voronovo" near Moscow and in the city carrier Brezhnev.
In contrast, heavy stone walls, resting on the ground, can be emphasized
horizontal joints release liner, as is done in the building of greenhouses in
Leningrad and the Supreme Court building in Tokyo.
addition to facing facades of buildings entirely natural stone cladding is
applied and the individual elements - plinths, stylobates, outdoor stairs,
portals, entrances, separate planes of the walls. Such use of stone allows get
interesting combinations of textures and colors of different building materials:
stone, concrete, stone and plaster, stone and wood, and so on. N.
Russian, there has long been the traditional architecture of a combination of
parts made of white limestone masonry walls, especially in the elegant works of
Moscow baroque XVII. This technique is used Shchusev in the building of the
Kazan railway station in Moscow. In buildings of Russian classicism of stone
made tower, stylobates and plinths. Here, the white stone combined with colored
traditional Russian architecture, a combination of red brick and white stone
details and is used in modern buildings. For facing the Palace of Culture
Association "Stroiplastmass" Mytishchi used dark red brick Gzhel
factory and travertine. The complex of buildings of the Moscow Institute of
Electronic Technology in Zelenograd stands the entrance arch of white marble on
a background of red brick wall. And the combination of the white stone with
brick arches and the shape vaguely reminiscent of the ancient belfries, give us
an idea of the deep connection of modern architecture with the previous
In modern architecture, there are other
combinations of various building materials with a stone. For example, stone
wall cladding combined with concrete pavement in the compositions of the
country house in Tuscany architect. Marino Rossi, "the house over the
waterfall" architect. FL Wright, the museum Takamattsu architect. Kagawa.
Here natural stone as it connects with the natural environment, artificial
constructions made of concrete, making each of these buildings blends into the
landscape. Concrete openwork lattice combined with marble facing of the walls
in the composition of the hotel "Moscow" (Baku).
mix of pale stone and metal we can notice in following examples. The most spread
nuance combination of white stone with details in gold anodized aluminum. With
this decoration on the walls of the building there is the play of light. Stone
gets golden highlighting due to glare from metal, which gives the building a
festive character. This combination of materials used in the facades of the
Kremlin Palace of Congresses, the Olympic sports complex on prospect Mira, the
cinema "Star" in Moscow, the Palace of Culture "Ukraine" in
Kiev Opera and Ballet Theater in Dnepropetrovsk, and so on. D. Good impression
combination of metal window arrays black with white marble walls in the
architecture of the office building in Mainz architect. Jacobson (Germany).
Bright vertical wall surface seem fragile, almost dissolved in the blue sky
background in comparison with the deliberately rough part of the grid.
combination of natural stone glass gives a special strength of the composition,
based on the sharp contrast of durable stone and fragile glass, for example,
the house Centrosoyuz Moscow by Le Corbusier - large glazed glass windows and
deaf plane wall of red-purple Artik tuff; House of Chamber Music. Komitas in
Yerevan architect. S. Kyurkchyan - glazed wall of the main facade and the deaf
volumes laconic geometric shapes of tuff browns; building swimming pools of the
Olympic Sports Complex in Moscow - a heavy stone stylobate and curved glass
wall; Ford Foundation building - high blind areas of polished granite walls and
windows of the conservatory.
until recently had seemed incompatible combination of stone and ceramic
veneers. Glazed ceramic tiles shining bright colors well-combined with white
limestone. The softness of color tones and nobility of the texture of stone
soften the coldness of glazed ceramics. The theater building of animals named
Durov (Moscow) with white limestone combined facing convex dark blue glazed
tiles. The building of the hotel "Youth" (Moscow) travertine softly
padded bright colors purple and blue glazed tiles and red-brown granite.
materials, depending on their application in various elements of the buildings
represent a large range. This range includes: veneer for the exterior cladding
of the field wall and cap for walls and partitions in the interior, plates and
strips for flooring; different profile details: cornices, corbels, baseboards,
trims, details of the portals, and specialized stones cordon plinth, columns
and their bases; elements of stairs: Tread and whole steps, handrails; sill
plates, balusters, stone and so on. These parts are made of different kinds of
natural stone and have a very different size. The choice of stone for facing
various building elements is determined by the aesthetic requirements for
color, pattern and texture. In addition to the decorative properties there are
a number of requirements that are taken into account, depending on the
conditions of service of the stone. For exterior cladding such requirement is
the ability to resist corrosion. For those parts of the building, which are
most exposed to rain or mechanical influences (plinths, cornices, stairs,
railings and τ d.), Used mainly silicate rock stones with a density greater
than 2.5 g / cm3. Therefore, the base of the building is the most suitable
granite, syenite, sandstone, gabbro, labradorite. It is applied in some cases;
soft limestone facing of the plinth is irrational, since limestone quickly,
often after only a few years of service loses its decorative qualities: color
changes, the surface collapses, gets dirty, covered with stains and smudges.
cap are mainly used plates 40-60 mm thick. Since sockets are often the only
elements of the building, stones natural stone, it is advisable to seek local
resources for their finishes. In Abakan, many buildings have caps, lined with
slabs of dark brown siltstone shale mined in the vicinity of the city. This
slate is very strong, thin slab of a thickness of 10-15 mm, and mounted only
solution. A slab of slate having various sizes and irregular shapes, in
combination with cement embroidered seams create pictorial effect. This
inexpensive, but decorative trim is also used in Krasnoyarsk, and some southern
cities of the USSR, where there are local shale.
facing field wall fit many kinds of types of stone, with the exception of
colored marble and plaster. The most often used limestone, gray and white
marble, travertine, dolomite, sandstone, travertine. Facing wall plates have a
thickness of 8, 10, 20 and 40 mm. Those most damaging effects of the building
and grounds are subjected to stage outdoor stairs. For them, the most suitable
material is the silica rock having a density greater than 2.5 g / cm3. Because
most of these rocks for a long time to resist abrasion rocks with quartz in its
composition. It - granite and quartzite. The most stages are used to medium-
and fine-grained rocks: granite, gabbro, syenite, diorite, basalt, sandstone.
From local breeds used dense limestone and sandstone. Under the terms of the
service level you should have a rough surface. With this invoice poorly
identified decorative stone-esteem, so pick up the stone steps based primarily
on its abrasion resistance, strength and hardiness.
elements of buildings, as portals of doors, window frames, cornices and columns
lately seldom made from a single piece of stone. They are now generally
reinforced concrete lined with thin slabs of natural stone. As decorative as
the highest requirements for columns and portals doors located in closest
proximity to the observer; on the strength - to the cornices, portals and
database columns are subjected more often than other elements of the building,
exposed to atmospheric moisture and mechanical damage. For portals and bases of
columns used granite, gabbro, labradorite and other high-silicate rocks, giving
a thin wall texture. For the eaves, window frames and wall columns of trunks
can be used, in addition, limestone, marble, sandstone, travertine.
means of fixing natural stone in exterior installations selected depending on
the size of tiles, as well as the material and construction of the building
portions being lined. Thin tiles (6, 8 and 10 mm) are attached to the wall
structure due to adhesion with the intermediate layer by the solution. Tile
thickness of 20 mm or more, and are attached by adhesion to the layer by the
solution, and at the same time using a variety of fasteners: Fix the spring,
staples, dowels, twists, bolts, spikes, hinges, hooks, pins.
Wall panels, tiled natural stone factory
of precast concrete panels held on the concrete products plant simultaneously
with the manufacture of the basic structure. For such a lining can be used
limestone, travertine, marble, dolomite, shell limestone. Facing plates,
equipped dowels, placed face to a pre-coated plastic film forms the bottom. The
back of the plates are cleaned and covered with a layer of sand and cement
mortar grade no lower than 150 thickness of 15-20 mm. Reinforcement of the wall
panel is placed on the latches to between it and the facing plates the
protective layer solution. Then the fresh concrete mixture and goes further
process of forming a wall panel. After steaming cladding panels eliminate
defects and carry out its hydrophobization. Not recommended for use this way of
facing boards with subtle textures, as polishing may be lost in the process of
using thin plates (thickness 10 mm) fixing it to the concrete panels made
without dowels only solution layer. This method is the most industrial as
eliminates manual work drilling holes and installing dowels. Modern cutting
technique allows to obtain a stone tile thickness of 6-10 mm. At the Moscow stone
processing plant mastered cutting blocks of travertine limestone Shakhtakhtinskaya
deposits of Azerbaijan in the plate thickness of 10 mm, which are used in
concrete products Beskudnikovsky plant for the production of lightweight
aggregate concrete panels with a decorative layer of travertine.
Prefabrication panels with the facing layer
of natural stone IE started in the 50s with the construction of tall buildings
in Moscow. In a high-rise building of the Ministry of Railways on Lermontov
Square 9000 m2 surface of the walls were lined with large-panel method slabs of
limestone. Experience in high-rise buildings has revealed the advantages of
large-panel lining: reduced labor intensity in 4- 7 times, reducing the time of
construction, the ability to perform tiling in the winter, the savings due to
thinning of stone tiles and exceptions thickened reference series, good
grouting solution due to vibration concreting.
In the last years, there are many buildings
which walls are made of panels, tiled natural stone factory in Moscow.
of brick or block veneer in two ways - simultaneously with the construction of
the wall and finished wall. When laying the cladding together with masonry
walls, they are tied to each other or bonder rows of boards or rocks at rigid
connection, or anchoring in the flexible connections. Bonder series for rigid
connection with a wall made of the same facing plates. They come in a masonry
wall depth than 120 mm. If you do not use the hard compound plate thickness of
20 mm and a height of 300 mm. larger veneer is attached to the flexible
connections. When installing stone slabs at the same time laying the basic and
flexible connections facing layer on each floor based on a special concrete
belt, which leaves a sedimentary seam.
ready the brick veneer walls are attached to the solution and with the help of
anchors. The basic masonry wall is performed with sutures, is not completely
filled with a solution. To fix only solution is applied to the tile thickness
of 10 mm and a height of not more than 140 mm. When attaching the only solution
facing held not earlier than 6 months after the load on the wall reached 85% of
the project.  Larger plates are secured to the finished wall with anchors.
fixing of tiles on the walls, which are made of masonry brick, masonry sealed
with steel hinges, which are welded to the horizontal and vertical bars of 10
mm in diameter with a pitch equal to half the length of the facing plates. Thus
formed reinforcing mesh used for hanging the anchor, pre-installed in the
facing plates. Such fixing of tiles and travertine Crimean limestone applied in
the construction of buildings of the city telephone exchange in Moscow on the
masonry walls made of ordinary brick, the mounting plates can be made directly
to the hinge device without reinforcing mesh.
starting work on fixing of tiles of their exact size is selected so that in the
process of lining seam lines obtained perpendicular, horizontal joints can be
maintained less strict. Plates also necessary to select the uniformity of tone,
color, texture. Most must be chosen carefully slabs with a pronounced pattern,
with mirror tiles and glossy texture is carried out dry with careful grinding
edges or seal roll lead. Seams are doing the minimum and fill them with putty.
With less subtle textures joints filled with a solution and embroider.
Solutions for joints can have a pigment additive color of the stone. The
thickness of the seams between the cladding plates is assigned depending on the
texture of the front surface. With mirror polished texture and thickness of the
seam can be 1-2 mm, sanded and spot - 3 mm, lumpy and furrowed - 5 mm and
texture rocks - 10-12 mm.
finishing tiling eliminate the resulting defects when mounting plates and, if
necessary, carry out hydrophobization of the surface of tiles.
of types of stone cladding means of its fastening, placing in various parts of
the building must now take into account the possible effects of aggressive
environment on the natural stone. Vehicles with internal combustion engines and
industrial waste gases determine the current availability of large cities in
the atmosphere of sulfur and carbon corrosive gases, dust and soot. These
impurities together with precipitation cause corrosion of facing stone,
especially carbonate rocks - limestone and marble. Facing stones silicate rocks
(granite, diabase, gabbro and sandstones, quartzites), far less than the
carbonate rocks, corrosion, since they contain oxides of silicon in the form of
mineral compounds, almost non-aggressive to the environment.
Corrosion appears in the form of stone
flaking, peeling, blistering and breaking of rock, cracks, voids and splits,
discoloration or staining of the stone surface in dark colors, the appearance
of brown and greenish stains of organic origin. The speed of the destruction of
the stone depends on the composition and structure of rock, climate (rainfall,
temperature fluctuations, wind speed and direction), atmospheric concentrations
of harmful gases, dust, soot, heat inversion of polluted air, the nature of
development of the territory, constructive protection stone cladding from
falling on her atmospheric and soil moisture.
are five basic factors causing corrosion of facing stone: subzero temperatures,
moisture (air and soil), sulfur dioxide, carbon gases, biogenic destroyers.
combination of the impact of freezing temperatures and moisture causes the
destruction of the stone lead to cracking, flaking and breakaway stone slabs.
This is the most characteristic of the porous limestone. Water penetrating into
the pores of the stone and its place of contact with a metal fastening parts in
the winter turns to ice, particularly rapidly in contact with a thermally
conductive than stone, metal. The ice takes up more space than water, causing
cracking of the stone, the cracks gets additional moisture, in turn turns into
ice and increasing the fracture. If, moreover, the metal fixing plates formed
by the rules, then they start to corrode, rust has a larger volume than the
metal, and also contributes to the splitting of the stone. As a result of
combined effects of moisture, frost and rust occurs chipping corners of tiles.
effects of sulfur gases in combination with atmospheric moisture results in the
formation on the surface of tiles caverns, spots, incrustations and films.
Sulfur gases, together with atmospheric moisture and precipitation form dilute
solutions of sulfuric and sulfurous acids. These acids falling into shallow
cavities and pores of the limestone or marble, result in the formation of
gypsum - loose mass of sulfate-carbonate composition. It is replaced with
plaster of the calcite in limestone and marble.
gases emitted into the atmosphere by internal combustion engines cities,
interacting with atmospheric moisture to form weak carbonic acid, which
dissolves the carbonate rocks. Therefore spoiled polished and polished texture
of tiles made of limestone and marble, it is corroded, loses sheen on the
surface of the plates appear sinters of dissolved species. Sculpture,
bas-relief carving and lose their shape, smoothed gutter. Such
"swollen" bas-reliefs and sculptures of marbled limestone can be seen
on buildings in London. Moreover, the upper part of the sculpture and
architectural detail, is directly exposed to precipitation and constantly
dissolving, - white, and the rest - from the dark dust and soot.
of buildings on Kalinin Prospect in Moscow in 1966-1967, lined. porous plates
Crimean Inkerman limestone quarry showed that cladding of buildings located
away from the continuously moving transport and in a relatively loose building
has no visible signs of corrosion. Facing the other buildings located on the
same side of the avenue, significantly affected by corrosion. This is due to
the fact that the construction of this part of the prospectus dense, located
close to the roadway, uneven; here the conditions for the stagnation of the air
with a high concentration of harmful impurities and thermal inversion. The
architectural design of the building does not provide elements that protect the
veneer of precipitation. White cladding of the buildings for 10 years of
service acquired sloppy appearance. To restore normal appearance of facing
difficult, as it requires, firstly, mechanical cleaning, and secondly, grinding
the entire surface, and with the existing air pollution all this will only give
a short-term effect.
better preserved buildings facing on the opposite side of the avenue, where
construction is more uniform height and no gaps between buildings. This type of
construction is less than promotes the formation of eddies of air, washing the
building and, consequently, decreases the degree of corrosion of stone
cladding. In addition, the veneer of these buildings is protected from rain
subject to corrosion cladding buildings set apart, in good airing. An example
is the building of the airport "Sheremetyevo", in 1952, faced with
polished limestone slabs Inkerman. Facing the airport building is protected by
the eaves and guttering.
of carbonate rocks also causes the impact of biogenic destroyers, releasing
humic acid: mosses, lichens, algae and single-celled etc. In addition, bacteria
that use carbonate rocks as a nutrient medium. Biochemical aggression are most
susceptible to limestone and marble in industrial cities, where the polluted
atmosphere contributes to the accumulation of plaster, dust and soot in the
pores and uneven stone. The circulation of carbon dioxide contributes to
creating conditions for the development of bacteria and plants. The surface of
the carbonaceous stone has always been in varying degrees of porosity. The
porosity of the marbles is low - of a percent, in limestone, it reaches 30% or
more. The pores formed habitat environment for various microorganisms are
separated during the life of the organic acid on which the salt is then formed.
Humus in the pores and cracks contributes to the accumulation of moisture and
growth of higher plants, which enhances further the process of destruction of
provide long-term service external facing of natural stone requires a set of
measures for its proper installation and
protection. These include: the choice of stone rocks considering water
absorption, frost resistance, structure and mineral and chemical composition;
choice of texture, taking into account the aggressiveness, the environment,
careful mounting plates to the stones with designs using only fasteners of
preservation of the outer cladding may promote certain planning techniques when
placing the stones in the urban environment of buildings, their location at a
sufficient distance from sources of harmful emissions into the atmosphere in a
ventilated area where there are no conditions for thermal inversions and
must be constructive techniques to protect the exterior cladding, namely device
cornices, canopies and other items to prevent a direct hit on the lining of
precipitation; plinths device of sufficient height, preventing the rise of soil
moisture on the walls and storm water.
External facing of carbonate
rocks should be treated with hydrophobic solutions, preferably every 2-3 years
pre-cleaning the surface of the stone.